Common Diseases at a Glimpse

Dr.Sajjan Madappady

Preventive Medicine

MBBS, MD, MBA, PGDDM, Certified Medical Tourism Professional,


Article Views: 159

Published On: Thursday April 21, 2016



Period of Communicability

  • Chickenpox: 1-2 days before to 4 – 5 days after appearance of rash
  • Measles: 4 days before to 5 days after appearance of rash
  • Rubella: 7 days before symptoms to 7 days after appearance of rash ,
  • Mumps: 4-6 days before symptoms to 7 days thereafter
  • Influenza: 1-2 days before to 1 – 2 days after onset of symptoms
  • Diphtheria: 14 – 28 days from disease onset
  • Pertussis: 7 days after exposure to 3 weeks after paroxysmal stage
  • Meningococccus: Until absent from nasal and throat discharges
  • Tuberculosis: As long as not treated
  • Poliomyelitis: 7-10 days before and after onset of symptoms
  • Hepatitis A: 2 weeks before to 1 week after onset of jaundice
  • Hepatitis B: Till disappearance of HBsAg & appearance of anti-HBs
  • Tetanus: None

Common Gestational Periods for Vertical Transmission of Diseases

  • Congenital Varicella: First trimester
  • Congenital Rubella: First trimester
  • Congenital Parvovirus: Second Trimester
  • Congenital Syphilis: Third trimester
  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Third trimester
  • Congenital Hepatitis B: Third trimester
  • Congenital CMV: Third trimester
  • Congenital HIV: During delivery
  • Congenital Hepatitis C: During delivery
  • Congenital Herpes: During delivery

 

 

 

 

Incubation Periods of Common Diseases

Disease Causative organism IP
Smallpox Variola virus 7-14 days
Chickenpox Human (alpha) herpes virus 3° – 14-16 days
Measles (Rubeolla) RNA paramyxovirus 10-14 days
Rubella (German Measles) RNA Togavirus 14-21 days
Mumps RNA Myxovirus 14-21 days
Influenza Orthomyxovirus ; 18-72 hours
Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae 2-6 days
Pertussis (Whooping cough) Bordetella pertussis 7-14 days
Meningococcal meningitis Neisseria meningitis 3-4 days
SARS Corona virus 3-5 days
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Weeks – years
Poliomyelitis Poliovirus 7 -14 days
Hepatitis A Enterovirus 72° (Picomavirus) 15-45 days
Hepatitis B Hepadna virus 45-180 days
Hepatitis C Hepacivirus 30 – 120 days
Hepatitis D Deltavirus 30 – 90 days
Hepatitis E Calcivirus 21 – 45 days
Cholera Vibrio cholerae 1-2 days
Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi 10-14 days
Staphylococcal food poisoning Staphylococccus aureus 1-6 hours
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides 2 months
Ancylostomiasis (Hookworm) A. duodenale 5 weeks – 9 months
Guinea worm (Dracunculiasis) Dracunculus medinensis 1 year
Dengue Arbovirus 3-10 days
Malaria Plasmodium vivax 8-17 days
Plasmodium falciparum 9-14 days
Plasmodium malariae 18 – 40 days
Plasmodium ovale 16-18 days
Lymphatic filariasis Wuchereria bancrofti 8-16 months
Rabies Lyssavirus type 1 (Rhabdovirus) 3-8 weeks
Yellow fever Fiavivirus fibricus 2-6 days
Japanese encephalitis Group B arbovirus (Fiavivirus) 5-15 days
KFD Arbovirus (Fiavivirus) 3-8 days
Chikungunya fever Chikungunyavirus (Arbovirus A) 4-7 days
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans 4-20 days
Bubonic plague Yersinia pestis 2-7 days
Pneumonic plague Yersinia pestis 1-3 days
Septicemic plague Yersinia pestis 2-7 days
2-7 days
Scrub typhus Rickettsia tsutsugamushi0 10 -12 days
Q fever Coxiella bumetti0 2-3 weeks
Taeniasis (Tapeworms) T. solium, T. saginata 8-14 weeks
Leishmaniasis (Kala azar) L. donovani b 1-4 months
Trachoma Chlamydia trachomatis 5-12 days
Tetanus Clostridium tetani 6-10 days
Yaws Treponema pertenue 3-5 weeks
HIV/ AIDS HIV/ HTLV – III/ LAV Months -10 years
Swine flu H1N1 Type A Influenza 1-4 days
Crimean Congo Fever Nairovirus 1-3 days
NIPAH Virus Hendra/Henapi virus 14 -16 days
Ebola Virus Ebola virus 2-21 days
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis 1-7 days
Brucellosis Bacillus melitensis 5-60 days

 

Important Human Parasites

Parasite Causative organism
Roundworm Ascaris sp. Ascaris lumbricoides
Balantidiasis Balantidium coli
Tapeworm Taenia solium/ saginata
Coccidia Cryptosporidium
Guinea worm Dracunculus medinensis
Amoebiasis Entamoeba histolytica
Pinworm Enterobius vermicularis
Liver fluke Fasciola hepatica
Giardia Giardia lamblia
Hookworm Necator americanus
Head louse Pediculus humanus
Body louse Pediculus humanus corporis
Crab louse Phthirus pubis
Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei
Strongyloidiasis Strongyloides stercoralis
Toxocariasis Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii
Trichinosis Trichinella spiralis
Whipworm Trichuris trichiura, Trichuris vulpis

 

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